When Insects First Flew

Insects were the first animals to ever develop the ability to fly, and, arguably, they did it the best. But this development was so unusual that scientists are still/working on, and arguing about, how and when insect wings first came about.

Special thanks to Franz Anthony for the beautiful insect reconstructions. You can see more of Franz's tremendous work at http://252mya.com

Phylogenomics resolves the timing and pattern of insect evolution:
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6210/763

Produced in collaboration with PBS Digital Studios: http://youtube.com/pbsdigitalstudios

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References:
https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(16)31461-0.pdf
https://www.nature.com/articles/nature12629
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6210/763
http://science.sciencemag.org/content/349/6247/487.2.full
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/03/26/science/insect-wing-evolution.html
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S096098221631346X
https://phys.org/news/2012-08-humble-bug-gap-fossil.html
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23426326/
https://livingwithinsects.wordpress.com/2014/09/04/the-hexapoda-gap/
https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdf/S0960-9822(15)00927-6.pdf
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5452959/
https://www.abdn.ac.uk/rhynie/collembolan.htm
https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/the-molecular-clock-and-estimating-species-divergence-41971



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